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marți, 13 iulie 2010

Culture, Conflicts, Conflict Resolutions (part 2)


Lessem and Neubauer
- Anglo-Saxons (including USA and Canada) – pragmatism;
- Franco-Nordic – rationalism;
- Germanic/Nippon – wholism;
- Italian/Latin – humanism.

- First World (western, anglo-saxon) – focus on procedure, concrete detail, factual statements, statistical information;
- Second World (former communist block except China) – deductive-rational approach, arguing from abstract to general principles, prior to entering into specific details;
- Third World – emotion, exaggeration, imagery, ambiguity and refference to history. Stressed the need for compensation justice, arguing from general principles, often considered universal.

Individual vs colectivism
- Most important dimension to underline cultural differences.
- The choice of the actor to prioritize between private/personal interests or colective goals

Individualist societies – the individual is the baseline of the identity, ties are loose and individuals are expected to look after themselves.

Collective societies – the social network (to which the actor belongs) is the baseline of the identity, people are integrated in groups which provide protection in return for loyalty.

- Colectivist societies make distinction between ”our group„ – ”other group”, treat friends better then othersand consider this as being ethical and natural. Morality in colectivist societies is percived differently than in individualistic cultures and is strongly related to the actor social position. The actor identity and existence is bound to commitments to at least one of the following: fammily, kin, ethnic ties, clientelist association, religion.

Negotiationg literature
- Competing, compromise, cooperationg.

Approach to interpersonal conflict
- Integrating (win-win) – high concern for self and others;
- Dominating (competitive, win-lose) – high concern for self, low concern for others;
- Compromising (mixed, no win, no lose) – intermediate concern for self and others;
- Avoiding (lose-lose) – low concern for self and others;
- Obliging/accomodating/smooting (losing more than one gains) – low concern for self and high concern for others.

Japan and France
- Might employ avoiding as a delaying strategy
Middle East, Asia, Mexico, France, Russia
- Compromise has a negative connotation, often associated with a second-best solution, with surrender
Western cultures
- Compromise is positive, dont see compromise as losing, but rather as the best solution. Interprets avoiding style as negative.

Conflict Resolution
- Seeks a third party to help disputants fiind a agreable solution
- Outsider-Neutral (Wehr and Lederach) – variation of models according to cotext.

Collectivist cultures take different position in negotiation when dealing with ingroups and with aut groups. More likely to pursue conflict/aggresive strategies with outgroups.
As these soceities include preserving hierarchy, trust, personal relations within the group, dependency the negociator needs different positions of power and gain their trust.

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