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miercuri, 7 iulie 2010

Culture, Conflicts, Conflict Resolutions (part 1)

Culture, Conflicts, Conflict Resolutions (part 1)

(this is just a sketch of a article that is way to long to fit here)

- Associated with the notion of identity;
- Usually regadred as a group phenomenon (despite the importance of the individual identity);
- Is a element among others in determining the outcome of the conflict management process, depending on the degree of cultural diversity among the actors involved;
- Values, beliefs, norms, which influence perceptions, assumptions, attitudes, behaviour and traditional practices;
- ”Collective progamming of the mind” (Hofstede);
- Expresion of all experiences of people or group of people over time which help shape personality and the way issues are perceived;

Cultural levels of analysis and examples:
- Universalism – Westernization; Globalization; Religious Fundamentalism;
- Bipolar divide – East vs East; Universalism vs. Particularism; Liberalism vs. Syncretist Ideologies; Individualism vs. Collectivism;
- Civilizations or Major Country Clusters – Strict doctines; Pan movements; Historic groupings (European, Anglo-American, Asian)
- Supranational or Regional – Celtic; Germanic; Latin; Nordic;
- Multinational States – various countries;
- Ethnonationalism and Nation States – various states;
- Sub-national identities – Catalan; Alsacien; Welsh; Basque;
- Community – towns; villages;
- Family – kin groups;
- Personal/Individual.

- Culture will be the main cause of future conflict, and cultural differences are less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic matters, especially when religious is involved.

Rubenstein and Crocker vs. Huntington
- Unless basic needs are unfulfilled as a result of unjust structures, different cultures have no reason to conflict. Conflicts based primarily on cultural differences alone are easier to settle than structural conflicts, because the parties involved seek goods such as identity and mutual recognition which are not in short supply.

My note
- Identity and mutual recognition may not be in short supply but are damn hard to get. Rubenstein and Crocker thesis though logical is contradicted by different examples in world history. Eg. Lack of statal recognition of various sub-national identities.

(to be continued with patterns/approaches to negotiation, individualism vs colectivism and the ”outsider-neutral”, or reffering to the title the rest about conflict and conflict resolution)

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