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marți, 27 octombrie 2009


Am vazut in ultimul timp la TV o campanie de publicitate in favoarea exploatarii din Rosia Montana in care se promit locuri de munca si protectia mediului.
Astfel, ca mi-am propus sa vad cat de adevarate sunt aceste afirmatii.

In continuare urmeaza o analiza a proiectului de extragere a aurului in zona Rosia Montana.

Deoarece textul este foarte lung am ales sa il impart in mai multe sectiuni.


Proiectul ce priveste extragerea aurului din zona Rosia Montana este promovat de o societate canadiana (Rosia Montana Gold Corporation) cu participarea statului roman (20%).

Asocierea a inceput inca din 1997. Printre investitori se numara: Deva Gold, Euro Gold Corporation, Canadian Company Gabriel Resources, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation. Procentele detinute de fiecare participant difera, iar scopul activitatilor a fost largit in timp. In acest moment insa, Gabriel Resources Ltd detine majoritatea (80%).

Investitia ce urmeaza a fi facuta este de 400 milioane USD si se intinde pe o perioada de 15-16 ani. Se estimeaza ca ar fi extrase 300 tone de aur si 1600 tone de argint.

Investitorul doreste sa obtina 2120 hectare din satul Rosia Montana si 800 hectare din satul Bucium. Tipul de exploatare este unul ”la suprafata”. Acest lucru presupune stramutarea a aproximativ 2000 de indivizi, 800 locuinte, 8 biserici, 9 cimitire, scoli, site-uri arheologice.

Societatea Academica Romana estimeaza ca in urma exploatarilor vor fi produse peste 200 milioane tone de pamant steril si peste 220 tone de material steril, care ar trebui depozitate [undeva]. De asemenea este nevoie sa fie sapate cratere care sa poata fi umplute cu 180.000 tone de apa in vederea procesului de transformare a aurului.

Conform expertilor principalele probleme ce privesc mediul ar fi:
1) Pe o zona foarte intinsa vor fi taiati copaci lasand impresia de desert. Acest lucru va afecta ciclul natural, va modifica temperaturile, circuitul aerului, al apei, va intensifica eroziunea solului. Va determina modificarea debitului raurilor rezultand inundatii frecvente, caderea terenului. In cele din urma aceste lucruri vor modifica in sens negativ peisajul determinand astfel pierderea valorii turistice.
Mai mult decat atat va fi afectata baza economica a localnicilor (despre acest lucru voi discuta cu alta ocazie).
Modificarea mediului va afecta diferite plante si animale din zona, multe dintre ele fiind in pragul disparitiei.
2) Terenul dizlocat va genera caderi de pamant in zonele din jurul zonei de exploatare. Un astfel de scenariu s-a intamplat in Muntii Calimani. Pentru o astfel de situatie investitorii au propus construirea unui ”zid de protectie”, insa o astfel de masura si-a dovedit deja ineficienta in Muntii Retezat, unde datorita ploilor ”zidul de protectie” a cedat.
3) O alta problema ce tine de mediu este legata de infiltratiile in pamant, in ape subterane.
Procesul de izolare a aurului de restul materialelor este unul foarte lung (dureaza cateva luni) si nu poate fi intrerupt. Acest lucru face ca orice interventie de reparare a diferitelor brese sa devina imposibila.
4) Mediul inconjurator este afectat si in mod indirect. Fara obstacole naturale rata de degradare a terenului se va accelera. De asemenea vantul va purta praful de steril pe o zona mult mai larga decat cea destinata exploatarii. Exploziile ”contolate” care vor fi realizate vor fi facute pe un teren instabil, iar acest lucru va determina caderi de pamant si raspandirea de gaz asupra zonelor care depasesc zona de exploatare si ar trebui sa fie neafectate.
5) Tehnologia folosita este una bazata pe cianura, iar acest lucru este interzis in zonele in care se afla in apropiere populatie, asa cum este cazul in Rosia Montana.

Va continua ……

The project of gold ore extraction from Rosia Montana is promoted by a Canadian society (Rosia Montana Gold Corporation) with the participation of the Romanian state (20%). The association has begun in 1997, having multiple investors as Deva Gold, Euro Gold Corporation, Canadian Company Gabriel Resources, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation. The percentages held by the societies differed and the scope of activity was permanently enlarged, but now, Gabriel Resources Ltd. has the majority (80%). After some test-extraction Rosia Montana Gold Corporation concluded that in the area there are enough gold and silver ore reserves (1.56 gr. Gold/tone and 7.8 gr. Silver/tone) to make profitable an extension of the extraction site next to the settlements Rosia Montana, Corne and Bucium. The investment would consist of 400 million U.S. Dollars, and should take 15-16 years starting from late 2004, early 2005. I tis estimated to get about 300 tones of gold and 1600 tones of silver. Consequently, the company Rosia Montana Gold Corporation started to buy (offering good prices) land in the area from the locals and the Local Administration. After protests from different individuals the company held conferences (November 2002 and January 2003), where different experts were invited, to explain the technical aspects of the procedure, and the safeguards they took.

The society wanted 2120 hectares from the village Rosia Montana and 800 hectares from the village Bucium. Also the Society Rosia Montana Gold Corporation stated it will undertake a surface exploitation. This involved clearing all the area and move in other places about 2000 individuals, 800 living places (740 houses and 138 apartments), 8 churches, 9 cemeteries, schools, and archeological sites. So, basically about 3.000 hectares should be cleared in order to start the excavations. The Romanian Academic Society, refers to impact studies that consider, there will be produced about 200 million tones of sterile land, which must be deposited and 226 tones of sterile due to the process of technological transformation of the materials in the desired ore. Also there have to be created places to hold 180.000 tone of water for the process or ore transformation, and isolation of poisonous products for neutralization.

Taking into account the activities different experts consider the next main issues as affecting the environment:
· On a large area the trees will be cut down and will create the impression of a desert. This will affect the biochemical cycle modifying the temperatures, the circuit of air, of rain, will intensify the erosion process of the soil. It will also determine a modification of the flow of rivers which will determine frequent floods, land falling and consequently affecting the landscape and the turistic value of the region. Moreover is affected the economical basis of the locals, as they will be no longer able to use the woods or places to feed animals simply because those will not exist anymore. Also the modifications over the environment will affect different species of plants and animals in the area, most of the being at the moment rare or threatened with extinction. So, basically the area will be transformed in a sterile place.
· Due to the type of terrain the dislocated soil generates the danger to fall destroying the surrounding areas which are outside the excavation site destroying anything that encounter in the way. Such a scenario was encountered before in Calimani Mountains at another excavation site. For this situation the mining society gave a solution as they offered to build walls in order to strengthen the soil dump area. But this was replied with the situation in Retezat Mountains when the rain made possible for the river to destroy the protection walls. Even though this kind of scenario will not happen again the rain is still able to transfer the poisoned soil in the surrounding rivers, polluting the water.
· Next to this, another problem linked to polluting the environment, is linked to different leaks, due to infiltration of different chemical waste. The process of isolating gold from the rest of the materials is a long process that may take months and can not be interrupted; also it needs very large areas of land, which can not be acquired without eliminating the impediments. The long time of the process disables the possibility of intervention in case of different errors appears in the isolation walls. Another risk is the degree of poisonous substances in the air. This though the society estimated is under the limits accepted by the European law, still it supposes to persist over a long period of time enabling genetical modifications, heart diseases, or affect the nervous system. Different examples were presented to support the theory: Colorado (1990) and Southern Carolina (1992) in SUA, Papua Noua Guinee (1992), Guyana (1995), Ghana (1999). In Romania a similar situation happened in Baia Mare, on a much smaller area (6-8 hectares), which affected a large area, including parts of Hungary.
· The negative impact over the environment is also due to the indirect effects of the activities, which can affect the biological structures and the circulation of substances and energy. This will determine an increase in the temperatures, a decrease of the rains and an intensification of circulation of air in the area. The air will increase the rate of degradation of the environment in a zone without natural obstacles; also will be able to carry the sterile dust on a much larger area, affecting a territory much larger than the one supposed to be under the control of the excavation Society. Also the intentioned explosions in an unstable area determines the land to fall in an avalanche and increase the rate of spreading the nitrate and gas over what should be (according the project) unaffected settlements.
· Another problem is the type of technology used in the context of the existence of populated settlements nearby. The point here is that the cyanide based technology used by the Rosia Montana Gold Corporation for isolating the gold ore is forbidden when nearby settlements exists.

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